Operations

  • Bending – the material is deformed or bent along a straight line.
  • Flanging – the material is bent along a curved line.
  • Embossing – the material is stretched into a shallow depression. Used primarily for adding decorative patterns. See also Repouss√© and chasing.
  • Blanking – a piece is cut out of a sheet of the material, usually to make a blank for further processing.
  • Coining – a pattern is compressed or squeezed into the material. Traditionally used to make coins.
  • Drawing – the surface area of a blank is stretched into an alternate shape via controlled material flow. See also deep drawing.
  • Stretching – the surface area of a blank is increased by tension, with no inward movement of the blank edge. Often used to make smooth auto body parts.
  • Ironing – the material is squeezed and reduced in thickness along a vertical wall. Used for beverage cans and ammunition cartridge cases.
  • Reducing/Necking – used to gradually reduce the diameter of the open end of a vessel or tube.
  • Curling – deforming material into a tubular profile. Door hinges are a common example.
  • Hemming – folding an edge over onto itself to add thickness. The edges of automobile doors are usually hemmed.

Piercing and cutting can also be performed in stamping presses. Progressive stamping is a combination of the above methods done with a set of dies in a row through which a strip of the material passes one step at a time.

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